Mini Wild Mol has been created by me, Molly Boyd, with the intent to enlighten the world about subjects I enjoy. The main subject of this blog will be wildlife (hence the “wild” in the blog name). This will include species profiles and also topics of interest. I hope that I can educate people, and spark passion about wildlife and the natural world. I may also include topics on minimalism (hence the “mini” in the title. In no way is this an indication of my rather small stature). When I say wildlife, I mean mostly African wildlife, because this is my most travelled continent, and I have gained a fairly large knowledge base on this area of the world. I will also look into other species in other areas of the world that hopefully one day I will get to see for myself.
Why have I chosen these topics and what qualifies me to talk about them you might be thinking?
Well the wildlife topic is my most qualified subject. In July 2019, I graduated from the University of South Wales with a 2:1 in a BSc (Hons) Natural History degree. This has given me a very broad range of knowledge on the way the wild world works. As well as this, I have been fortunate enough to travel to Africa 8 times since 2014. Over these trips I have gained vast knowledge about the wildlife that resides in this awe-inspiring place, gained from field guides and a lot of wildlife books. I hope to be able to travel to other wild areas of the world in the future such as Asia and The Amazon Rainforest. My two favourite animals are leopards and hornbills (this includes all species of hornbill).
Minimalism came into my life around January 2017. I am still very much new to the idea of living with less and consuming less. In no way would I consider myself an expert, but things that I have heard and read have resonated with me. Now that I am trying to live my life this way, I feel other people may benefit from the things I’ve learned and the mistakes that I may make along the way so that the same doesn’t happen to them. At least no one needs to feel bad for making “mistakes” with minimalism if they see that someone online does too. I have found that travelling with less makes the experience a whole lot less stressful though, so I will try and provide some tips for this especially.
My plan with this blog is to post once a week at first to get a feel for the work and to be able to create some quality content for my readers. As minimalism has shown me, it’s quality not quantity that counts and I hope that it shows through the progress of this blog.
I also have some experience in photography, mostly wildlife and pets, and so I’m hoping to pretty this page up as some old photos are prettied up ready for sharing.
An additional section to my wildlife blog
As well as producing blog posts on wildlife topics and animal fact files, I am going to have a section dedicated to nature book reviews. These books will include all forms of Natural History writing, whether a story-like book or field guide. If the books are in my growing collection, I will post about them in this section. The first book review will be out around the 9th of July, as this is the official release date from the publishing company for the book I am writing about.
Vultures are categorized on whether they are Old World or New World vultures. There are 23 species altogether, with the New World species being found across the Americas and Caribbean and the Old World vultures being found in Africa, Asia and Europe.
The New World vultures include the Turkey Vulture (Cathertes aura), the Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus), the Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus), the American Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus), the King Vulture (Sacoramphus papa), the California Condor (Cymnogyps californianus) and the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). All of these vulture species are classed as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List, except for the Condor species, with the California Condor (G. californianus) being classed as Critically Endangered (CR) and the Andean Condor (V. gryphus) classed as Vulnerable (VU).
The Old World vultures include the Palm-nut Vulture (Gypohierax angolensis), the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), the Red-headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus), the White-headed Vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis), the Hooded Vulture (Necrosyrtes monachus), the Himalayan Vulture/Griffon (Gyps himalayensis) , the White-rumped Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), the White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus), the Indian Vulture (Gyps indicus), the Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris), the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres), the Rüppell’s Vulture/Griffon (Gyps rueppelli), the Griffon Vulture/ Eurasian Griffon (Gyps fulvus), the Cinereous Vulture (Aegypius monachus), and the Lappet-faced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotos). More of these species are classed as Near Threatened (NT), Endangered (EN), or Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List than the New World Vultures. Only two of the Old World Species are classed as Least Concern and those two are the Griffon Vulture (G. fulvus) and the Palm-nut Vulture (G. angolensis).
The biggest threat to all vulture species is poaching. Poisoned carcasses are used to kill them as the carcass will attract large numbers of them and makes for an easy slaughter of a mass group of them for the poachers to take. These vultures are then used in traditional medicine or used for witch-craft. One of the most popular reasons for taking vultures is that it is believed that if you sleep with the skull of a vulture under your pillow, or smoke the brain of a vulture, you will be able to see into the future. This was thought because vultures can find carcasses from many miles away, although we know it is because they fly at some astonishing heights and have incredible vision.
The largest vulture species is the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus), with a wingspan of almost 3.5 metres and weighing up to a whopping 15kg. Vultures are known for using thermal air currents to help them to stay in flight.
The vultures, especially the African species (as far as I’m aware), have a certain order of feeding when it comes to a carcass. Usually, they will take over a carcass that has been left by another animal, such as a lion or hyena. But if they were to be the first animal to come across a carcass, they feed in a certain order because of their specially designed bill anatomy. The Lappet-faced and the Cape Vultures are the first to feed, this is due to them have the largest and strongest bills, making it easier work for them to open up the carcass and get to the larger bits of meat. The next species are more specialist feeders and start to take the smaller bits of meat that is harder for the larger species to get to. In this instance, that includes the White-backed and the White-headed Vultures. The last species you will see on a carcass in Africa is the Hooded Vulture. These guys have very small, tooth-pick-like bills in comparison to the others and so they are left to clean around the bones and get into all the tiny nooks and crannies that the others have missed. By feeding in this manner, it means that no part of an animal goes to waste as each species has a certain part that it eats, and therefore nothing gets missed.
The problem with the disappearance of vultures, is that you can see when certain species haven’t turned up to a carcass as there will be lots of left over bits of meat. This becomes problematic as vultures form a disease control team. A vulture’s stomach acid is so strong that it can kill diseases such as anthrax. Without these guys as the clean-up and disease control team, we are only letting ourselves is for much worse outbreaks of disease than Covid.
Great Hornbills are similar to that of Rhinoceros Hornbills, with the Male being larger and measuring 121-150cm in length, and the female measuring 112-125cm in length. The males have an average weight between 2.6-3.9kg, and the females have an average weight between 2.1-3.4kg.
The Great Hornbill is a very large hornbill species. They have a black band across a white tail and black wings with a white trailing edge. The head has some white plumage areas, as well as the neck, wing coverts and base of the tail, all of which are usually cosmetically stained yellow with preen oil.
To distinguish males and females apart, you look at the eye and orbital skin, the same as in Rhinoceros Hornbills. The males have red eyes with black orbital skin, and a flat casque that is forked at the front with black edges. The females have white eyes with red orbital skin that flushes brighter when breeding. The females have a smaller casque that lacks the black lines. Juveniles have blue-grey eyes and have a casqueless bill, it takes over five years for them to grow to maturity.
The Great Hornbills produce a loud reverberating call with a kok sound. Pairs with often duet this call and it can be heard over 800 metres in the forest. They also produce other guttural sounds.
The Great Hornbill distribution is spread over south-west India, south Himalayas and south China into Indochina south to Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra.
Their preferred habitat is primary evergreen and moist deciduous forest. They occur at sea level, but their preference is hills further inland that are between 600-1,000m in elevation. They have been recorded up to 2,000m in the Himalayan foothills and in northern Thailand.
They feed in the canopies of large trees and will be found in a resident pair or family group. They are largely sedentary birds, although they will range for food outside of breeding season. They are known to roam widely in a search for fruiting trees, and they have been seen flying over open areas on occasion. Flocks may gather in fruiting trees or in evening roost spots; there was a recording of over 200 individuals on one occasion before 1927. They will sometimes fly down to the forest floor to retrieve fallen fruits.
Figs are a favourite food of Great Hornbills, although they will also take other fruits that are usually lipid-rich. They are also known to take animal prey such as small mammals, birds and reptiles, and they will also take large insects and other arthropods; they have also been recorded taking flowers and buds. They have a hunting behaviour which is displayed as hopping along branches and poking their large bills into crevices and bark – once they grab the prey, they will toss it in the air and catch it again for a better grip.
Surveys have been taken on different populations a number of years ago to discover the proportion of each food group in the Great Hornbills diet. In Khao Yai National Park in Thailand, it was found that 57% of the total food weight was figs, 29% was other fruits and 14% was prey. A survey during the breeding season showed that there was a food delivery of 30.5g of food delivered per hour.
Another study in southern Thailand found that 54% was figs, 41% was other fruits and 5% was animal prey, with 47g of food brought to the nest per observation hour.
In India, three fig species dominated the diet, which became even more prevalent in the non-breeding season as lipid-rich fruits became few and far between.
They have been recorded to live up to 41 years in captivity and up to 30 years in the wild.
Great Hornbills have a heavy and laborious flight pattern which involved 3-4 flaps (heavy wing beats) and a long glide; the wings make a loud whooshing sound.
The nesting season of Great Hornbills runs between January to June throughout its range, this species is monogamous and territorial. They become more vocal during the breeding season, making a loud and slow kok call. There have been rare recordings of aerial casque-butting. There preferred nesting trees are various hardwood species and they use a cavity that is on average 6-45m above the ground – the height of the nest is dependent on forest type. The female will enter the nest and seal herself inside; faeces will mainly be used to create the plaster for sealing the nest. Chewed wood, bark and food debris may also be used in conjunction with faeces for sealing the nest, little or no soil will be used. A vertical slit of 20cm long and 5cm wide will be left open.
They can lay between 1-4 eggs, although it is most usually 2; the eggs will be laid with a 4-5 day interval in between and have an incubation period of 38-40 days. The male will bring around 30g of food per hour to the nest for the female and her chicks. The male will usually make around 3-5 visits to the nest per day with the visits starting late morning and lasting 15-20 minutes; visits with animal prey are shorter. The male can deliver up to 185 items of food a day, with recordings of up to 50 grape-sized fruits in one feeding. The male will regurgitate them individually from his gullet.
Once the chicks have hatched, the amount of food delivered increases exponentially, but the number of visits will not increase. The male will forage a forest area of 1.3-4.5km2 around the nest and will fly up to 3km away.
The female will emerge when the chick is 14-59 days old, it is around 85 days on average (with the range being 62-121 days) after sealing herself in the nest. After the female has emerged, she will help the male with the feeding of the chicks. The chick will reseal the entrance of the nest and will fledge at 72-96 days. The total nesting period in the wild is between 102-144 days – it is shorter in captivity.
The biggest threats to Great Hornbills include habitat loss, especially areas of forest with large trees that typically may be targeted by loggers, which in turn takes out their preferred nesting trees. The forests are illegally logged and cleared for land conversion, mainly for housing and agricultural development. Agricultural developments include small-scale agriculture to large-scale plantations. They are also facing illegal hunting, and due to their predictable behaviour, regularly visiting the same feeding sites as well as using the same tree-cavities to nest in, they are easily targeted by local hunters. They are most usually hunted for food as well as for the casque and tail feathers, which are used as adornments by local communities. It is also highly prized for its fat, which is used for a variety of purposes ranging from medical treatments to gun polish. Great Hornbills are also captured for the pet trade, with chicks being collected in south India and Thailand and may also be taken as ‘bycatch’ by hunters targeting Helmeted Hornbills Rhinoplax vigil.
Rhinoceros hornbills are usually 99-125cm long (both male and female). The male usually weighs more with average weights of 2.4-3kg; the female is lighter with average weights between 2-2.4kg.
These hornbills are very large, with black plumage, except for white thighs and vent; the tail is also white with a broad, black band.
Rhinoceros hornbills are listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and have a declining population trend. Illegal logging and agricultural development are among the biggest threats to this hornbill species. This species is also impacted by hunting. It is caught for food, trade and the use of body parts (mostly the casque and tail feathers) in ceremonial dress.
Male rhinoceros hornbills have large ivory-white bills with some bright orange at the base of the upper mandible. Yellow is present on the bill which is from the preening oil, and extends along 1/3 of the bill. They have a typical ‘horn bill’, which is reddish orange and has a horn-like shape. It has a thick black line along the rear edge, but thinner along both sides and curving to the front. Males have red eyes with black orbital skin.
Female rhinoceros hornbills are smaller and also have a smaller casque which doesn’t have a black line on it. Females have white eyes with red orbital skin.
The rhinoceros hornbill subspecies have a few differences between them. The Borneo subspecies is generally smaller and have shorter, broader casques that are sharply upturned and curled at the tip.
The Javan subspecies (Chester Zoo’s rhinoceros hornbills) have broader black tail bands and forward-pointing, straight casques, but also have some individual variation.
The juveniles have smaller, casqueless bills.
There are thought to be 3 rhinoceros hornbill subspecies. B. r. rhinoceros occurs in south Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. B. r. borneoensis occurs in Borneo, and B. r. silvestris is found in Java. A fourth subspecies of B. r. sumatranus has been suggested for Sumatran rhinoceros hornbill, but they appear to be inseparable from their original grouping of B. r. borneoensis.
Rhinoceros hornbills are found in the Sunda subregion, south Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (Kalimantan, Sumatra and Java) Borneo, including Brunei and western Indonesia; they are locally extinct in Singapore (2001).
They are found in extensive tracks of primary Sundaic rainforest; they extend into mature secondary forest and are occasionally seen flying over disturbed areas or plantations to and from feeding grounds. They can be found at sea level and coastal swamp forest into lower montane forest, recorded to around 1,400m elevation.
They feed mainly on fruits, especially many figs, but also lipid-rich capsules and drupes. They will eat other fruits in different locations such as the tropical rainforest in southern Thailand. They will also be opportunistic and take animal food, often below the canopy, especially during the breeding season to get enough protein into the young. The prey they feed on includes quite a variety of different items, including invertebrate animals (insects), lizards, rodents, tree frogs, and bird eggs.
A study from southern Thailand showed an average amount of food brought to the nest, and found around 72% of total food weight was figs, 24% was other fruits and 4% was animal prey. With around 63g/obs.hr delivered to nests.
They are largely sedentary and are usually seen in pairs or small family groups, feeding high in the canopy of large forest trees. Outside of breeding season, they may travel in search of fruiting trees, particularly figs, and flocks of up to 25 birds.
They have a largely aseasonal breeding season. Egg-laying has been recorded in January, March-June, September and November. In southern Thailand, females have been seen sealing their nests in March and a chick has been seen fledging in July.
The nest is a natural cavity in a tree, averaging 4-46m high in the tree, most usually around 22m, mainly Dipterocarpaceae trees.
The female will seal the nesting hole until only a narrow elongated slit remains. The male will feed her, and later the chick through the narrow slit remaining. The male will regurgitate fruits from its gullet; it carries animal prey into the nest in the tip of its bill.
1-2 eggs are laid; the incubation is 37-46 days. The female will emerge from the nest 39-51 days after the chick hatches; the nestling period is around 52-90 days. Total nesting cycle in southern Thailand is 122 days plus/minus 10 days.
With zoos reopening across the UK on Monday (12th April), I figured this was a fairly logical topic to write about this week.
A study undertaken by Williams. E. Et al (2021), looked at the effects of zoo closures on animals’ behaviour. The study looked at a few species including Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus), Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi), Swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), Rothschild’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), Nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), Chapman’s zebra (Equus quagga chapmani), Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and Amur leopard (panthera pardus orientalis). These species were split across two different zoo sites, with observations carried out by the keepers during a period of when the zoo was closed and when the zoo reopened.
A scan sampling technique was used during each sampling (observation) period which lasted five minutes each time. The behaviours were recorded for the group as a whole, rather than identifying the individuals to see if the behaviours were unique to that individual. The behaviours being recorded were to collect data on whether specific behaviours were present or absent within the group.
The behaviours being recorded were listed in an Ethogram so that all participants observing the animals had an accurate description of each behaviour and could identify the behaviours easily.
The Ethogram used was:
Alert – showing a heightened awareness of their environment (including looking at visitors)
Human-animal interaction (positive)
Moving towards or seeking interaction from humans
Human-animal interaction (negative)
Avoiding, moving away from or showing fear of humans
Locating and consuming foodstuffs
Any self-maintenance or self-grooming behaviour
Engaging in positive social behaviours (e.g. social play, grooming)
Engaging in negative social behaviour (e.g. fighting, displaying)
Moving around the enclosure (on land or in water) in a non-repetitive pattern
Interaction with the environment
Investigation or interaction with things in the environment (other than food).
Sitting or lying motionless with eyes closed. No other behaviour is being performed
Abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARBs)
Repetitive behaviour with no obvious function or purpose
Any other behaviour not detailed in the ethogram
Out of sight
Animal out of sight of observer
The results of the study showed fluctuations in behaviour across all the species studied, however with the inconsistencies of the observations, the significant differences in frequencies of performance were not always detected.
The behaviours to note from the study included Nyala showing no vigilance behaviours during the period the zoo was closed with no visitors and reduced staff numbers, however, their were signs of vigilance recorded when the zoo opened, which remained at similar levels of the zoo being open <1 month and open > 1 month. They initially showed a decrease in feeding behaviours when the zoo was open less than a month, but then increased their feeding behaviours to even more than the closure period when the zoo had been open for more than one month.
The Rothschild’s giraffe in the study showed a steady increase of both vigilant and feeding behaviour over time from the zoo being closed to being open for more than one month. Their resting behaviour decreased over this time and no resting was observed when data was collected after the zoo had been open for more than one month.
The Chinese goral showed more vigilance behaviours when the zoo had been open for less than one month, however, this behaviour decreased over time and reduced to the same levels of vigilance as the closure period after the zoo had been open for more than one month.
Chapman’s zebra showed a decrease in vigilance when the zoo opened, but showed an increase in feeding behaviour. The Grevy’s zebra had fluctuating levels of vigilance and feeding behaviours throughout all states of zoo opening and closure periods, with no set pattern recorded.
Swamp wallabies showed an increase of vigilance behaviour over time, from the zoo being closed to being open for more than one month, however the majority of the behaviours shown was resting behaviour in all time periods.
Amur leopards showed a reduced level of vigilance behaviour over time, from the zoo being closed to being open for more than one month, however, their locomotion behaviour increased during the period that the zoo had been open for more than one month. Snow leopards were either resting or out of sight during all observation attempts, no matter the time period.
Overall, most species exhibited behaviours that are what we would expect from them from both zoo sites, whether the zoo was closed or open. The Grevy’s zebra showed more comfort behaviours being performed during the closed periods compared to when the zoo was allowed to open. The Chinese goral showed more interaction behaviours with its environment during closed periods compared to open periods, with no environmental interactions being observed when the zoo was open.
So what does this mean for the zoo animals when all the zoos start to reopen on Monday?
It means that they could start to show a few behaviours that we may consider to be negative during the first few weeks of opening, remember, they haven’t seen the public for the last 3 whole months plus a bit, so the noise and visual stimulus of lots of humans is a bit alien to them again. They don’t have an understanding as to why humans they’re not used to keep appearing and disappearing at random times throughout the year, and so it could be a little stressful for them to start with. However, the majority of zoo animals have spent their entire lives in these environments and so it won’t take them long to become habituated to having visitors at the zoo again.
Do we need to do further studies in this area as to whether reduced visitor numbers are better for zoo animals?
It would certainly be an interesting study, especially to determine if having limited guest numbers is better for them than unlimited numbers where there could be tens of thousands on any one day during the summer, and only a couple thousand in the winter during normal times.
Studying juvenile animals that have been born during the lockdowns who haven’t witnessed crowds of people would also make for an interesting study, to see how dramatically their behaviour changes with different stimuluses in their environments that they have never seen before because it was not possible. A study into how their behaviours adapt and change over time to the new stimulus of a large crowd would also be interesting.
In the majority of animals, we shouldn’t see that much of a change in their behaviours as it has been a part of their lives for a long time, but it may take a few days or weeks for them to become used to it again. Please remember when visiting your local zoo, that you should try and be respectful to the animals by not being too loud, this will help them a lot if we show them some respect. Please also remember to follow the directions of staff at the zoo and follow covid rules so that they are able to stay open to not suffer any more drastic financial losses.
Williams. E., Carter. A., Rendle. J., Ward. S. J. 2021. Impacts of COVID-19 on Animals in Zoos: A Longitudinal Multi-Species Analysis. J. Zoo. Bot. Gard. 2021, 2, 130-145. https://doi.org/10.3390/jzbg2020010
Easter is a holiday that a lot of us look forward to, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and even more especially when you’re involved in wildlife conservation and have a general interest in wildlife. Easter marks the start or very near start of baby season in the wild and in a lot of farm animals too. It is at this time of year where birds will be coming together to breed, lay their eggs and hatch their chick, there will be baby lambs on many farms across the country, all over the New Forest we’ll start to see foals, calves, baby donkeys and maybe a few hares and rabbits about the place.
Why do we see so many young animals appearing at this time?
This time of year starts to see better weather, which includes more sunshine, slightly less rain and warmer temperatures. This change in season starts to see buds appearing on trees and bushes, flowers starting to sprout out of the ground and therefore starting to provide new food to the animals on the lower end of the food chain. This new abundance of food means that animals have the energy to produce young, and also have the means to provide for their young once they are born. When the herbivorous animals produce their young, that gives omnivorous and carnivorous animals a bigger selection and abundance of food choice too.
It is important that young animals have an abundance of food to eat as they need the energy to grow and become strong, allowing them to mature into adults and leave their parents at the appropriate time. Without an abundance of food, the parents would also suffer and put their health at huge risk of not being able to recover if there isn’t enough food for them too.
Other areas of the world with an abundance of wildlife at this time of year
I’m not sure if too many other areas experience a baby boom of wildlife at this time of year, especially the southern hemisphere as they are going into autumn and starting to prepare for winter at this time; however, countries that exist in the vicinity of the equator seem to have babies appearing at this time.
I visited Tanzania in March 2018, experiencing the baby season of the wildebeests in the southern corner of the Serengeti. There were hundreds of thousands of wildebeest calves being born, zebra foals and perhaps more herbivores that I didn’t see at that time. I also saw a fair amount of lion cubs at this time too. The southern Serengeti was in its rainy season, making the grass grow lush and long, attracting the wildebeest and the other animals that migrate with them to the area. With this abundance of new grass, it made the perfect areas to give birth. Not only did it provide a large amount of food for the new mothers so that they could produce a good amount of milk for their young, the long grass also helped to hide their young from predators. With the abundance of young wildebeest and zebra, being easier to catch as they are a lot smaller and more grabbable than the adults, it provided predators with a good food source to provide for their young, which made sense why everything seemed to be having babies at this time of year.
Helping the wildlife out
Due to this being the baby season for wildlife, it is imperative that we don’t disturb any animals when we go out to enjoy nature.
Some simple rules to follow include: sticking to already made paths – in doing this, you’re reducing the risk of walking through a ground-nesting bird area, or stumbling across an animal giving birth which already puts them on edge. Always remember to watch your step so that you don’t accidently damage bird nests, fall down rabbit warrens or step in icky after-birth.
Dogs should be on leads in wildlife areas – there is a huge risk of dogs either accidently or purposefully injuring/killing young wildlife, and in this day and age where numerous species are suffering low numbers, we must do everything we can to give the young animals the best chance of surviving.
Also, always observe from a safe distance – new mums can be especially feisty and could harm you if you get too close, especially if they fear you pose a great threat to their young.
Weight (mass): 1,000-2,000 kg (males), 1,000-1,700kg (females)
IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable
Population Trend: Stable
Population numbers: estimated at 115,000 – 130,000 individuals
Hippos are semi-aquatic mammals, spending most of their day in water. They are large animals, with smooth, hairless skin, short legs and a very large head. The mouth contains huge tusk-like canines, although these teeth play no part in eating activities, but are used for attracting mates and showing strength to competing males in dominance battles.
Hippos are now only found to the northern and eastern parts of southern Africa, only extending as far south as the KwaZulu-Natal at present, however they were previously found in Cape Town, along the southern coastal belt and along the entirety of the Orange River until colonial settlers hunted them out of those areas. The distribution of hippos is patchy across the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, but they are widespread.
The type of habitat required by hippos is a sufficient water supply so that they are able to submerge themselves. They show a preference of permanent waters containing a sandy substrate. They can be found in rivers, dams and lakes. They feed on grass, and so the surrounding areas from the water must have a suitable supply.
Hippos, as I’ve previously said, spend a lot of time in water, however, in winter, they spend a significant amount of time lying up on sandy or muddy banks, mostly to be in the sun. Most often, hippos will be found in pods containing 10-15 individuals, however larger groups and lone bulls are not uncommon.
The pods are usually made up of cows and their calves of varying ages with a dominant bull in charge of the group overall. The territories of hippos tend to be narrow in the water, but broaden out on the grazing grounds. Dominant bulls scatter their dung to mark their territory. The scattering is done by flicking the tail from side to side, very fast and vigorously, they will spread their dung onto rocks, bushes and other objects, as well as in the water.
Adult hippos are able to stay under water for around 6 minutes. They are able to close their nostrils and ears to stop water getting in.
The skin glands on hippos secrete a reddish fluid, which is often mistaken for blood, however it is most likely used as a skin lubricant and moisturiser. Hippos have very sensitive skin which can easily burn if exposed to the sun for too long, which is why they tend to come out of the water to feed at night-time.
Hippos are very vocal creatures, and you will often hear their grunts and snorts. The only way to describe their grunts is that they sound like very large frogs or toads, or an evil old man laughing slowly and cunningly.
If hippos are provoked, they become extremely dangerous to be near. The ones to be particularly careful of are solitary bulls, or cows with young calves. They are estimated to kill around 500 people a year in Africa, giving it the reputation of the world’s deadliest large land mammal. Make sure you give these magnificent creatures enough space so that they don’t feel threatened by your presence and they won’t harm you at all.
Hippos mate in water, due to their size I imagine this is easier on the females. They have a gestation period of 225-257 days, where they will then give birth to a single calf weighing 25-55kg (usually around 30kg). The cows give birth on land in dense cover where they will then remain separated from the pod for about 2 weeks. They aren’t known to have a breeding season as calves are seen to be produced at any time of year, however there does appear to be a large increase and a seasonal peak in October to March.
The Red Fox is the only member of the Canid (dog) family in the UK. A lot of the time, they are seen as pests by farmers and the public as they have a reputation for stealing chickens and going through our rubbish when scavenging for food.
Red Foxes however do have quite a varied diet and will eat small mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and well as berries and fruit. Due to the multitude of habitats they can be found in, from forests to urban cities, they have become highly adaptable to thrive in these places, which is why they will scavenge for food anywhere, including our bins.
Their range outside the UK extends all the way across Europe and all the way into Asia, and also into the Middle East. They have also been introduced in a number of places, including Australia and New Zealand. They are also found across the United States. They have a widespread across the UK, however they are absent for the Channel Islands, the Isles of Scilly, the Scottish islands and the Isle of Man.
The Red Fox can be found in a variety of habitats, including grassland, heathland and moorland, farmland, woodland and towns and gardens. They tend to be out during crepuscular (dawn and dusk) hours and throughout the night as they are rather nocturnal. If you’re out early in the morning or late in the evening, you stand a good chance of seeing one.
Red Foxes have a global IUCN Red List Status of Least Concern with a stable population trend; however, the number of mature individuals is not recorded on the IUCN website.
They are easily identifiable, being a medium-sized dog with an orangey-red fur on the back, sides and head, a white belly, black tips on the ears, dark brown feet and a white tip on the end of the bushy, orange tail (the tail is also known as the ‘brush’).
Red foxes are 62-72cm in length from the snout to the bass of the tail, the tail is 40cm long, on average they weigh 5-7kg and they have an average lifespan of 2-3 years.
Foxes will typically mate during the winter. The female (vixen) will give birth to a litter containing 2-12 pups. The pups are born with a brown or grey coat rather than red as it helps to disguise them better while they are vulnerable and defenceless. The orange-red coat will start to grow in when they are around a month old. Both of the parents will look after the pups throughout the summer until they are big enough and ready to go out on their own in the autumn.
The Spotted Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) is a fairly common animal to spot on safari in Africa, with them being found mostly in protected nature reserves. They have otherwise been eliminated throughout South Africa, southern Namibia, and central Zimbabwe. Other than these areas, they are found in most African countries, as far north as Guinea, Ghana and Nigeria, all the way across to Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania, and then covering pretty much the entirety of southern Africa.
The preferred habitat of spotted Hyaena is varied, however they exclude themselves from dense forest and desert. The only requirement of their habitat is a sufficient supply of medium-sized ungulates (antelopes), which includes wildebeest and some other antelope species.
Hyaenas are rather dog like, although they don’t fit into the canid family. They have a relatively large build; their shoulders are taller than their rump, with a coat varying in colour from a fawn-yellow to a dirty grey containing numerous dark brown spots or splodges. They have a characteristic routine of calls including whooping, giggling and cackling calls, most often heard at night.
Spotted Hyaenas have an average total length of 120-180cm, tail length is 25cm on average, an average shoulder height of 85cm and an average mass of 60-80kg.
Spotted Hyaenas have an IUCN Red List Status of Least Concern, although their population does have a decreasing population trend. The number of individuals in the wild is currently unknown.
The behaviour of Spotted Hyaenas is particularly interesting, they are the only known social hyaena species, with the clan (group) always being dominated by a female. There is a huge variety in size of clan, with some only having 3 or 4 individuals, to some clans having 15 or more individuals. Within these clans, it is usually related females, their young, and unrelated males that remain within the clan for varying lengths of time (up to several years for some). The highest-ranking female dominates all members, including the dominant male.
They are territorial and the clan will defend their territory against other clans, using anal gland secretions to mark territory boundaries, as well as using urine and very distinctive bright white droppings. They are mainly nocturnal, but are frequently seen during the day also. As mentioned already, they are notorious for being vocal and have many types of calls including whoops, groans, grunts, whines, yells and giggles.
Hyaenas use dens to sleep in and protect the cubs; the dens may just be holes in the ground or intricate warren systems which are associated with rocky outcrops and caves.
Spotted Hyaenas gained a reputation for being cowardly scavengers, and although they do perform this behaviour, they are also avid hunters, having witnessed a hyaena clan take down two wildebeest in the Serengeti, I can confirm this is true. They generally go for zebra, wildebeest and sometimes even giraffe. They will also eat smaller critters such as insects, lizards and small mammals if they can find and catch them. They are also notorious raiders and will go through dustbins and rubbish dumps at campsites.
Hyaenas usually have 1 or 2 cubs per litter, there are rare occasions where there will be more cubs. Each cub will weigh around 1.5kg at birth. They don’t generally have a specific breeding season, although in some areas, seasonal peaks have been recorded. The gestation lasts for around 110 days. There may be two or more females that all have cubs at a similar time and keep them in a burrow together for several months, however each mother will only suckle her own cubs. At birth the cubs have a dark brown fur covering their whole body with a lighter fur on their heads and necks.
Lifespan in Spotted Hyaenas has been recorded to be up to 16 years in the wild, with an average lifespan of 12-25 years in captivity. A record lifespan of a Spotted Hyaena in captivity was recorded at 41 years and 1 month.
When people are planning a trip, maybe abroad, maybe only a few hours away from home, and that trip specifically features the topic of wildlife watching, you only ever hear people talk about going to see the big animals. For instance, people travelling to Africa will talk of hopes that they get to see all of the Big 5, or people going to India will talk about going to see a tiger, and by no means should they not be excited about that. However, if the big animals are all you’re excited for, you could come away from your holiday in a low mood, potentially because you didn’t find those big animals, and so when someone asks you what you saw, your response might be “we didn’t see anything”.
As an example, on my self-drive Kruger holiday that I went on with my boyfriend in the summer of 2019, we had quite a few days where we could’ve said we saw “nothing”, because it’s true, we had maybe 3 or 4 days where we saw very few or no big animals at all. In this situation, having been to Africa multiple times before, and understanding that wildlife does its own thing, I understood that we also needed to be excited about the possibility of seeing smaller animals, such as birds, reptiles, maybe even some insects (although it was winter, so reptiles and insects were less likely). It was the interest of seeing all the wildlife that Kruger had to offer, be it big mammals, tiny little birds or a leopard tortoise that kept the days of “nothing” more exciting for us.
I would describe myself as quite the “bird nerd” and so I do find seeing birds and checking off new species on my list maybe a bit more exciting than most, but if you’re travelling to the other side of the world, or even just a few hours down the motorway, being excited about the possibilities of finding an array of wildlife will ultimately make your trip better for you, at least in my opinion it would.
It sometimes becomes more exciting if you turn finding new species into a game or a challenge, such as identifying new birds, or trying to have more birds on your list than the other person. These games often work better if there is a larger number of you in separate vehicles/walking groups. That is the other thing about viewing wildlife. In many areas of the world, you unfortunately do have to stay in your vehicle, be it for safety or not damaging the environment etc. When there is a chance to explore on foot however, I strongly recommend that you take that opportunity and run (preferably walk though) with it. In Africa, there are these amazing people, professionally trained and labelled Field Guides. These Field Guides are trained to the highest standards in training camps before being let out to guide the public, and if you are able, you should absolutely book yourself on a bush walk. The guides will take you out on foot, explaining how to identify which animals are in the area from their tracks (and poop), they will tell you about the different trees and plants and all about their different uses in traditional medicines, you may come across smaller critters, such as spiders (I know everyone isn’t too happy about them, I’m included in this, but they are interesting none the less), you may even find a chameleon and get some lovely up-close photos of one. It even gives you a different perspective on just how insignificant you are in the world when you’re on foot only 30 metres from an elephant.
In my personal opinion, the best way to never be disappointed when going on a holiday, or even just a day out at your local nature reserve, is to be excited about finding anything and everything. I’m excited for the spring to start bringing the butterflies, the birds and more life into the world again. Maybe it’s just a very British thing, but we all get overly excited when we find cows in fields, especially baby ones, and I think if we all applied that same excitement to all aspects of wildlife, no one would ever be disappointed just for having the opportunity to be outside and be in nature.
One last thing to mention is that there is never not an opportunity to learn when it comes to wildlife, there are thousands, maybe tens of thousands of books out there covering every topic, species and research question known to man. Or at least a big enough variety that it would probably take more than one lifetime to learn everything that’s already out there. So I would say, buy the books, learn as much as you can about every aspect of one area of wildlife, such as ornithology (study of birds) or mammalogy (study of mammals), and then look for examples of what you’ve learned and appreciate all of the different aspects of their biology, ecology and behaviour that you’ve read about. You could even implement your own little studies on your wildlife watching holidays to gain even more of an understanding, such as a behaviour study. The most important books to take with you on your wildlife excursions are definitely identification or field guides so that you are able to identify everything you see. You may also need some binoculars as animals, particularly small ones also like to remain at quite a distance from you. If you are a photographer, trying to photograph every bird, insect, reptile and mammal will also give you a much bigger portfolio to build up when you get back home, thus making your trip look even more impressive to your peers.
CITES stands for: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
So what is CITES about exactly?
CITES is an agreement between governments, which has aims to ensure that any trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not have an impact on that species survival.
The background of CITES
CITES was first formed in the 1960s. It seems obvious now as to why something like this might be needed now with the plight of so many animals such as tigers, elephants, rhino and pangolin species all being threatened; however, back when it was set up, the discussions to regulate the trade of wildlife for conservation purposes was relatively new.
The international wildlife trade (mostly illegal), is estimated to be worth billions of dollars on an annual basis, and it includes the trade of wild animal and plant specimens. The specimens can be found in a variety of different states to be sold in, ranging from live animals and plants, to many different products that have been derived from them. These products include food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. We can all surely think of animals that receive high levels of exploitation, along with high levels of habitat destruction, which is ultimately depleting their numbers hugely. There are many species that can be traded legally because they are not endangered, however, the agreement being in existence helps to ensure the sustainability of the trade in those species to safeguard them for the future.
International cooperation to safeguard certain species is needed due to the trade in wild animals and plants crossing borders between countries, the cooperation of the countries helps to lower the risk of over-exploitation of certain species. CITES today offers varying degrees of protection to more than 37,000 species of animals and plants, no matter whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.
The CITES Appendices are lists of species that are assigned to one of the 3 appendices, depending on the level or types of protection that species needs from over-exploitation.
Appendix I species are the most endangered species among the CITES-listed animals and plants. These species are threatened with extinction and this CITES appendix prohibits the trade of any specimens of these species, except for where the purpose of trade is not commercial, such as for scientific research. The import and export of specimens in these exceptional cases can be authorized with the granting of both an import and export permit (or a re-export certificate).
Appendix II listed species are not necessarily threated with extinction right now, but may become threatened with it if the trade is not closely controlled. This appendix also has “look-alike species” included, for example, species with specimens in trade that look remarkably like those species listed for conservation reasons. Although an import permit is not necessary for species listed under appendix II, they will need a granting of an export permit or re-export certificate to be granted for international trade of specimens. However, import permits maybe required in some countries that have tighter restrictions than CITES requires. Permits or certificates should only be granted if the authorities involved are satisfied that a number of conditions are met, and above all, the any trade of that specimen will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.
Appendix III, the last CITES list category, is a list of species formed at the request of a Party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation. International trade of Appendix III species is allowed, only on the presentation of appropriate permits or certificates.
CITES Parties (Parties of the Convention)
CITES is an international agreement to which States and regional economic integration organizations adhere voluntarily. States which have agreed to be bound to the Convention (‘joined’ CITES) are known as Parties. CITES is legally binding on the Parties involved – meaning they have to implement the convention – however, it does not take the place of national laws. A framework is provided to be respected by each Party, which then has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.
CITES has one of the largest membership numbers among conservation agreements, with 183 Parties signed up.